Biotechnology for sure is an expansive territory of biology which includes living systems and life forms which are interdependent on each other either to create or make items, or any mechanical application that utilizes natural frameworks, living creatures, or subsidiaries thereof, to make or adjust items or procedures for explicit use.
It regularly covers the fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, bio-manufacturing, molecular engineering.
Therefore, it is scientifically categorized into various branches accordingly. So, here’s some branches of Biotechnology which we have discussed in detail as in below. Red, Blue, White, Purple, Violet, Dark, Yellow, Grey, Green etc.
Based on its specific Use and also color, branches can also be divided in to sub-classes of biotechnology.
Top Branches of Biotechnology
|S.N||Branches of Biotechnology|
Career, Salary and Job Scope in Biotechnology
|S.N||Biotechnology Carrer||Salary||Job Vacancy||Demand|
|6.||Food Scientist and Technologist||$61,480||14,170||High|
|8.||Soil and Plant Scientist||$59,920||15,150||High|
Here are Top 10 Branches of Biotechnology
The color ‘blue’ in biotechnology, as we think ‘blue’ for water, relates to the exploration and exploitation of aquaculture, coastal and marine biotech. It would enable developing new pharmaceuticals or industrial enzymes to make aquatics resistant to environmental extremes.
As 70% of earth surface is water mass, aquatic ecosystem is much larger in terms of biosphere. However, water pollution is threatening their life and existence.
So, blue biotechnology has prospect to revive the marine ecosystem restoring them to original state with genetic study and DNA sequencing.
Substances extracted from marine life are being used as a treatment of AIDS, painkillers and even on cosmetic products, with the belief of having lesser side effect.
And therefore, Blue biotechnology is one of the major branches in biotechnology and has wide range of uses.
Application of Blue Biotechnology
Here are various applications in the field of blue biotechnology
One of the most obvious uses of marine biotechnology is verifying the nourishment supply. It is fundamental to fulfill the developing interest for high caliber and sound items from fisheries and aquaculture in a practical manner.
Marine-determined nourishment items and nutraceuticals are an indispensable piece of human sustenance in numerous pieces of the world.
Alternative Energy Source
Production of bio-fuel from microalgae is very encouraging. Algal biomass can be developed in fake lakes or in bioreactors without rivaling rural yields. This is a broad field of research in this day and age. Studies have proposed that ocean growth could be appropriate feedstocks for bio-refineries.
Human and Environmental Health
Marine biotechnology is additionally verifying human wellbeing and natural wellbeing.
There have been various improvements in novel medications, painkillers, anti-infection agents, anticancer medications and beautifiers from marine bio-resources.
They are gotten straightforwardly or in a roundabout way from marine widely varied vegetation.
Industrial parts are the biggest recipients of marine biotechnology since each item devoured by people originates from the modern biotech segment be it nourishment, nutraceuticals or meds, and pharmaceuticals. Proteins, compounds, biopolymers, bio-glues, and biomaterials are delivered on a huge scale from a marine biological system.
A transgenic fish is a hereditarily changed fish whose DNA has been adjusted utilizing hereditary designing systems. Gene conveyance to marine creatures is one of the most critical uses of marine biotechnology. The fundamental motivation behind transgenesis in fish is to improve their gene, development, obstruction, and profitability.
Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field in the branches of biotechnology that creates techniques and programming devices for understanding organic information.
As an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics joins science, software engineering, data designing, arithmetic, and measurements to investigate and decipher organic information.
Bioinformatics has been a part of branches of biotechnology over a decade and has been utilized for in silico examinations of natural inquiries utilizing scientific and factual procedures. Bioinformatics is the blend of PC and biotechnology especially in the field of genomics.
It helps in finding the investigation of information identified with Biotechnology. It plays a significant and imperative job in regions like Functional genomics, auxiliary genomics and proteomics these zones contribute a ton and become a key supporter of the Biotechnology and pharma part.
Application of Bioinformatics
One of the major application fields of bioinformatics is the medicinal sector. It is used to invent drugs, preventive methods and many more. Including medicine discovery, personal medicine, preventive medicine, gene therapy, and other techniques, it is applied in human, animal and agricultural fields.
Microbial Genome Application
Including waste cleanup, climate change, biotechnology, and alternative energy bioinformatics is broadly applied. Overpopulation growth has brought extreme for the entire world. If such technologies are not invented and applied, living on earth will be too difficult.
Bioinformatics is widely used in agriculture for crop improvement, insect resistance as well as nutritional quality improvement. Such methods help farmers to cultivate crops as per the situation.
The color ‘green’ in biotechnology represents agriculture and use of microorganisms to prevent, reduce, and treat environmental pollution.
Green biotech aside from its top notch position in branches of biotechnology has its uses along side in the environment friendly alternatives like genetically altered plants or animals, transgenic plants, genetic engineering of plants for improved nutrition, manipulation and use of microorganisms for crop modification, producing fertile and resistant seeds, etc. instead of traditional agriculture, animal breeding and horticulture.
Beneficial selective genes are transferred to another so that they could survive the extreme environment, resist insects, tolerate herbicide, eliminate allergens and produce fortified crops enriched with abundant essential nutrients.
Green biotech one of the branches of biotechnology, further supports harmonious ways for minimization and proper management of harmful waste through the techniques of bio-remediation, conversion to bio-fuel, bio-fertilizers and bio-energy.
Applications of Green Biotechnology in Agriculture
Tissue Culture and Micro propagation
One of the unmistakable apparatuses in plant biotechnology is micro propagation, which means the act of quickly duplicating stock plant material in tissue culture to create an enormous number of descendant plants in a constrained reality.
It is a magnificent method to duplicate hereditarily altered breed, sans pathogen transplants, seedless assortments, or those plants that don’t react well to vegetative engendering.
Crop modification strategies are being utilized for a long time to improve the quality and amount of yield. Previously, explicitly good mates were crossbred through customary systems. Today, present-day logical strategies, for example, mutagenesis, polyploidy, physical hybridization, RNA impedance, transgenic, and genome altering are broadly utilized.
Improved Nutritional Contents
Crops are invigorated or enhanced with supplements to supply fundamental supplements in customary weight control plans and staple yields and lessen ailing health in creating nations. For instance, potato, a hereditarily designed potato in India creates around 33% to one-half more protein than expected alongside a significant measure of all the basic amino acids.
Improved Agronomic Traits
Tools of biotechnology are to a great extent productive in upgrading the agronomic attributes of plants and farming harvests.
Such qualities incorporate creepy-crawly obstruction, herbicide resilience, infection opposition, malady opposition, temperature resistance, dry season resistance, deferred organic product maturing, expanded dietary worth, improved nourishment preparing and capacity and the end of poisons and allergens in crop plants.
Applications of Green Biotechnology in Environmental
Bioremediation utilizes to devastate or immobilize squander materials and ecological toxins. The general ways to deal with bioremediation are to reestablish ecological wellbeing by improving regular biodegradation by local life forms.
Bio-energy and Bio-fuel
A noteworthy use of green biotechnology is the transformation of biomass into warmth and power and biofuels through thermochemical and biochemical change procedures and extraction process.
Biofertilizers are significant in economical horticultural practices to supplant the utilization of poisonous and unsafe synthetic compounds. Utilized as microbial inoculants or microbial arrangements, biofertilizers improve the wholesome states of the dirt.
Red biotechnology, also known as ‘medical biotechnology’ relates to the process of utilizing organisms in genetic engineering and developing medicines such as antibiotics that enable human body fight diseases and improve health.
It is being used in developing the vaccines of Hepatitis B, DPT and polio. The technology benefits tissue engineering as well as cancer research, manipulation of genes (germline engineering at the embryonic stage and gene therapy in adult), veterinary and production of bio-chips.
Introduction of new drugs, cultivation of cells, tissues and organs are the results of red biotech and therefore it has does is a key role model in the branches of biotechnology.
It further involves creating new forms of drugs or cellular treatments for diseases, especially age-old, like tuberculosis and resistant strains of malaria, influenza and other viruses.
Application of Red Biotechnology
Red Biotechnology has numerous applications in health care industries and continues to provide improvements field. Probably the greatest territories of applications in the restorative field are as:
Genetic testing is one of the more disputable utilizations of biotechnology and incorporates two significant sorts: one technique includes the utilization of DNA tests with arrangements like transformed successions and the other strategy includes the researcher or scientist directing the hereditary test by looking at the patients DNA grouping against a sound people DNA grouping.
Utilizations of biotechnology in hereditary testing make it conceivable to decide sex, transporter screening, pre-birth analytic screening, infant screening and even scientific and character testing.
Pharmacogenomics is the effect that the hereditary legacy of an individual has in transit their bodies react to medications and meds. It is fundamentally the investigation of hereditary qualities and pharmaceuticals.
Biopharmaceuticals allude to huge atoms of protein that regularly focus on the concealing systems of ailments. Biotechnology has improved the manner in which medications and meds are created and utilized and has opened the entryway to a totally different technique for creating medicines by considering hereditary attributes.
White biotechnology, also referred to as industrial biotechnology is all about using living cells and enzymes to synthesize products that can be degraded easily, creates lesser waste during production and consumes less energy.
For instance, biodegradable plastics with the polyesters of 3-hydroxy acids (PHAs) as they can be easily synthesized as an energy reserve and carbon source. It focuses on sustainable processing challenging every sector, including agriculture and manufacturing.
The sole focus of white biotechnology is replacing conventional polluting technologies with clean ones. These days, it is being widely used on metabolite production, waste treatment, production of bio-control agents, bio-based fuel and energy and recovery of metals.
White biotechnology, one of the branches of biotechnology uses renewable bio-masses such as starch from potatoes, corn and sugar cane, which can be used to make ethanol as a substitute of gasoline.
Integrating the result from other biotech, it works on improving industrial rail, designing system solution for fresher environment.
Application of White Biotechnology
Microorganisms produce various metabolites during their development organizes by utilizing modest substrates Acetone-butanol, Organic acids Alcohol. Antibiotics, Enzymes, and Vitamins can be produced.
Reducing contamination by appropriate waste treatment is in-truth the best waste treatment is among the significant objective of white biotechnology.
Production of Bio-control Agents
Microorganisms are utilized to control bug nuisances, pathogens, and weed. The organic specialists utilized for this design are called bio-control operators.
Bio-Based Fuel & Energy
Cellulose protein innovation benefits the transformation of yield deposits to ethanol. The methods likewise permit diminished CO2 outflows by 90%. Further, it produces more prominent local vitality and utilization sustainable feed-stock.
Recovery of Metals
Microbes are utilized to recoup important metals from the metals of a poor quality for which the ordinary metallurgical procedures are contaminating.
Grey biotechnology is about removing contaminants using microorganisms and plants to create balance in the environment.
Human have accumulated waste in the earth surface since long affecting organisms in tropical level. The non-degradable waste that takes centuries to decay can be converted into a useful form or microorganism can be used to decay them.
That’s what grey biotechnology concerns about. Where pollution has been a challenge these days, grey technology looks for solution to control pollution by proper management of waste.
Bacteria like Ideonella Sakaiensis 201-F6 can digest plastics and majority of sewage treatment technique use microorganisms to oxidize the organic constituents.
Some can be used to make compost or organic manure even from solid kitchen waste which can be used for agriculture later.
Instead of adding piles in dumping site every day, we can work on better management of waste through grey biotechnology.
Its contribution in branches of biotechnology does holds a remarkable jobs of betterment and hence can be concluded as an clean and green branches of biotechnology.
7. Brown Biotechnology
Brown technology, as we think of ‘brown’ soil refers to the management of parched lands. It is commonly known as ‘Arid Biotechnology’ or ‘Desert Biotechnology’.
Desert constitutes around 33% of land surface of Earth and in the continent like Africa, a home to some of the poorest countries, nearly two-thirds of the area is desert or dry lands.
On the unavailability of sufficient water and extreme climate, crop production is futile, leading to hunger issues and economic challenges. Non-pathogenic bacteria like Bacillus Pasteurii works on solidifying the soil to control the spread of deserts.
So, brown biotechnology also one of the branches of biotechnology, is all about feeding the population residing in these areas developing highly resistant crops to dry and saline soils using GMO technology, using high-quality seeds, developing post-harvest technology to preserve foods from extreme climate, cross-breeding high yielding livestock and making rational use of water in low-rainfall areas.
Violet, also a ‘purple’ biotechnology unlike other bio-technologies, aims at maintaining and encouraging inventions instead of increasing.
It relates to analysis and publication of biotech research, patenting the biotech, ensuring intellectual property rights and forming a platform for discussion and looking for solution to the problems faced in biotechnology.
Certain criteria are to be fulfilled before having the biotech patented, like matter eligibility, novelty, utility, etc.
Further, biotech shall be acceptable by the industry, have an inventive step and not been disclosed previously.
Some aspects of biotechnology law are controversial and some claims that it is slowing up inventions instead of encouraging.
How far it will be effective depends on international agreement and consensus regarding patent right of biotech invention.
None of the discoveries of science are free of dark sides and biotechnology is not an exception.
So, as the name suggests, dark biotechnology involves the threats of bio-terrorism, bio-warfare, bio-crimes and anti-crop warfare.
Bioterrorism refers to intentional release or dissemination of virus, bacteria and other agents to sicken or kill people, livestock and crops. E.g. Bacillus anthracis.
These biological agents can be used either in their natural or modified form to enhance their performance making them resistant to antidotes.
The microorganisms, pathogens and toxins as an inexpensive tool can be used to cause terror and panic in the society. Based on of mortality, the degree of transmission and dissemination, they are categorized into three classes; A, B and C.
To satisfy the ever-increasing needs of people, livestock are being raised in increasing volume, which results into deforestation, heavy feed and clean water usage.
From raising livestock to creating farms and managing by-products, meat industry alone accounts for 24% of greenhouse gas emission.
On the other hand, where more than 200,000 insect species depend on plant for survival, they have evolved to be plant toxins resistant.
These detoxification processes are coded in various genes. So, biotechnology is modifying these plant toxins to make them no longer effective.
Yellow biotech works on extracting useful insect products and minimizing environmental exploitation from meat production.