Pancreatic cancer is a malady wherein dangerous cells structure in the tissues of the pancreas.
The pancreas is an organ situated behind the stomach and before the spine. The pancreas produces stomach related juices and hormones that manage glucose.
Cells called exocrine pancreas cells produce the stomach related juices, while cells called endocrine pancreas cells produce the hormones. Most of pancreatic cancer growths start in the exocrine cells.
Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms
2. Pain in the upper or middle abdomen and back
3. Unexplained weight loss
4. Loss of appetite
1 CT scan
3. Endoscopic ultrasound
5. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
6. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
Research in the field of Pancreatic Cancer
Doctors are working to learn more about pancreatic cancer, ways to prevent it, how to best treat it, and how to provide the best care to people diagnosed with this disease.
The best chance of successful treatment is when pancreatic cancer is found early. This is why ongoing research is focused on finding and using special blood tests, diagnostic imaging tools, and other approaches to find pancreatic cancer at its earliest stages before it spreads.
Genetic/molecular studies. In cancer, damaged or abnormal genes cause uncontrolled cell growth. Many new research developments are based on identifying damaged genes and proteins and repairing them or changing how they work.
1. Immunotherapy: Researchers are studying several types of immunotherapy as potential treatments for pancreatic cancer.
2. Targeted therapy: As discussed in the Types of Treatment section, erlotinib is the only targeted therapy currently approved for pancreatic cancer, in combination with gemcitabine. Other drugs that may help block tumor growth and spread are being studied for pancreatic cancer, both as single drugs and as part of combination therapy.
3. Gene therapy: Gene therapy is the delivery of specific genes to cancer cells, which are often carried by specially designed viruses. These include normal genes that are delivered into the center of cancer cells.
4. Chemotherapy: Newer, stronger types of standard chemotherapy continue to be researched. One example is nanoliposomal irinotecan, which is now approved as a second-line treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer.
5. Cancer stem cells: Pancreatic cancer stem cells are cells in the tumor that may be particularly resistant to standard therapies. Research is currently focused on identifying treatments that may specifically target those cancer stem cells.
6. Palliative care: Clinical trials are underway to find better ways of reducing symptoms and side effects of current pancreatic cancer treatments to improve patients’ comfort and quality of life.
Curing Pancreatic Cancer Using CRISPR
Pancreatic cancer growth is presently turning into a typical reason for disease demise with no noteworthy change in quiet endurance in the course of the most recent 10 years.
The principle treatment alternatives for pancreatic cancer growth patients are medical procedure, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy, however there is presently impressive exertion to grow new and successful medicines. As of late, CRISPR/Cas9 innovation has risen as an incredible quality altering apparatus with guarantee, as a significant research technique, yet in addition as another and compelling strategy for focused treatment.
In this survey, we condense ebb and flow propels in CRISPR/Cas9 innovation and its application to pancreatic cancer growth explore, and significantly as a method for specifically focusing on key drivers of pancreatic disease.
CRISPR/Cas9 framework is generally utilized in pancreatic cancer research to take out qualities embroiled in the sickness movement. Watanabe et al. (2018) utilized CRISPR/Cas9 to take out KDM6A in human Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell lines to show that KDM6A-lacking cells display a forceful phenotype. Pessolano et al. (2018) and Belvedere et al. (2016) indicated that CRISPR/Cas9-coordinated take out of ANXA1 in Mia PaCa2 cells, brought about the discharge of less extracellular vesicles and a frail motile phenotype.
After take out of GALNT3 in Capan1 cells, Barkeer et al. (2018) found that cells shaped less tumorspheres, lost their capacity to self-restoration, and move. Yuza et al. (2018) showed that take out of SphK1in PAN02 cells brought about expanded multiplication and movement.
Opportunities with CRISPR for Pancreatic Cancer
In pancreatic cancer quality treatment, there are a few current improvements including quality based tumor cell sharpening to chemotherapy, inoculation, and supportive immunotherapy. Be that as it may, as of late the CRISPR/Cas9 genome altering strategy has been used in a few pancreatic cancer thinks about because of its wellbeing and viability.
CRISPR/Cas9 quality treatment could be possibly utilized both ex vivo and in vivo. In ex vivo treatment, cells could be secluded and adjusted outside of the body, and afterward transplanted go into the body. In vivo treatment, hereditary materials could be legitimately infused into the body.
Chiou et al. worked in vivo pancreatic cancer models by means of retrograde pancreatic ductal infusion of either adenoviral-Cre and lentiviral-Cre vectors. This system could set up new treatments for pancreatic cancer.
In like manner, CRISPR/Cas9 innovation is giving extraordinary would like to the treatment of monogenic sicknesses, degenerative maladies and HIV contamination, and a few CRISPR/Cas9 clinical preliminaries have been performed, yet there is as yet far to go before the CRISPR/Cas9 system is utilized to treat pancreatic cancer patients.
Hopes for Pancreatic Cancer treatment with CRISPR
As indicated by the information given by the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR), pancreatic cancer is the twelfth most regular disease with the fifth most exceedingly awful anticipation in the United States.
Medical procedure, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy are as yet the primary treatment alternatives for pancreatic disease, yet there is presently significant exertion in distinguishing better treatment systems for pancreatic cancer, for example, directed treatment, safe treatment and conceivably CRISPR/Cas9 coordinated quality treatment.
At present CRISPR/Cas9 is developing as a ground-breaking quality altering instrument with potential in exactness prescription. CRISPR dull successions were first seen by Ishino et al. (1987), with ensuing work performed by Jinek et al. (2012) demonstrating that an endonuclease can be coordinated to separate objective DNA by a two-RNA structure.
From that point forward, CRISPR/Cas9 innovation has quickly advanced, driving mind-boggling progress in look into and clinical applications. Contrasted with the other quality altering innovations, for example, meganucleases (MNs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and translation activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), CRISPR/Cas9 innovation has lower cost, higher proficiency and is less mind-boggling in its application.