In this 21st century the era of innovation, where people are challenging nature with the assistance of science and technology, the savage assaults of nature cannot be eradicated. Obviously, technologies to deal with natural disasters are being invented day by day, although this is not sufficient.
One of the techniques phage therapies is used to treat and cure pathogenic bacterial infections. It is also known as bacteriophage therapy and bacteriophage means the natural enemy of bacteria that can be obtained in soil, sewage, water, and other places where bacteria live. In general, the method of treatment against bacterial infection using bacterial virus is considered as phage therapy. It is safe for human wellbeing, animals as well as plants. According to this method, the phages attach to the bacterial cells and infuse the bacterial genome into the cell. The infused viral genome replaces the bacterial genome and prevents bacterial infection. Accordingly, when bacteria are unable to produce new cells, additional phages begin to be produced instead. The risk of side effects is very low. However, finding an effective phage for a particular infection is certainly not easy. This requires many tests, studies and researches. This method is effective in human medicine as well as dentistry, veterinary science and agricultural science.
In correlation, phage therapies are often more compelling than antibiotics. Biofilms secured by the polysaccharide layer are often inaccessible to antibiotics where phage therapy easily penetrates and affects. Phage therapy is usually harmful to bacteria other than the host organism. Despite being so effective, it can only eliminate bacteria if it matches the specific strain of the bacterium, so it can only be successful for patients infected with the similar strain.
Along new discoveries and inventions in science and technology, this phage therapy is currently only being used to treat bacterial infections. It is widely used, especially in countries such as Russia and Georgia, which do not respond to conventional antibiotics. The Phage Therapy Unit was established in 2005 in Poland, the only centre in the European Union. This treatment has been the subject of renewed clinical attention in the United States and Western countries, and in 2019 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the first U.S. clinical trial for inpatient phage therapy.
History of Origin for Phage Therapy
Most inventions and explorations are not coincidental. For this, the situation and diligence must be matched. There are probably more medicines accessible in the world than diseases, but not all medicines are easily invented. Some drugs do not detect the disease for years. Phage therapy is certainly not an easy invention. Probably the credit for any invention goes to one but it is not complete. In this context the Englishman Frederick Twort in 1915 and the French-Canadian Felix d’Herelle in 1917 discovered this method and also discovered the secret that bacteriophages exist in any place bacteria flourish such as in sewers, in streams and even in the stools of convalescent strength patients. In this way, the principle of phage therapy was perceived by many in the process of preventing bacterial infections. It was not easy to invent. How difficult it was to contemplate the micro-organisms in a dirty place where people could vomit even when they saw them with the naked eyes and to use them at the risk of the patient’s health.
The progress of science and technology is advancing as others are doing research based on one’s hypothesis. It was during this time that Georgian scientist George Eliawa met with d’Herelle in 1917 and established an institute in Tbilisi, Georgia, dedicated to the development of phage therapy. This was followed by extensive research in Russia, as well as the commercialization of phage therapy in the United States by Eli Lilly and Company in the 1970s. Initially, this method was not considered reliable. In the case of competition, phage therapy could not stay away from the invention of antibiotics. During and after World War II, large numbers of penicillin G antibiotics were successfully produced and made publicly available to treat the bacterial wounds of wounded soldiers, and the interest in phage therapy waned.
In the development of antibiotic production, Russian scientists, who have been detached from the Western countries and continued to treat wounded soldiers with phage therapy, have not given up. As a result, the Soviet Union used this method extensively during World War II in the treatment of bacterial infections. Not all diseases of the same kind can be cured by the same medicine but they continued it. Evidence of this can be seen today in Tbilisi, Georgia, at the George Eliawa Library and Research Center, where extensive instances of phage therapy can be seen vividly. The side effects of early detection antibiotics are no less risky. As a result of the development of antibiotic resistance and the advancement of scientific knowledge since the 1950s, there has been a renewed interest in the ability of phage therapy to eradicate bacterial infections and chronic polymicrobial biofilms.
Bacteria can exist all over, but not all bacteria are harmful. The glory of phage therapy seems to have increased significantly by focusing on food spoilage and listeria, agriculture and animal husbandry, and bacterial diseases in fish. Although it has effectively treated a wide range of bacterial infections such as E. coli, Shigella, diarrhea, other skin and traumatic infections, as well as problems in agriculture and animal husbandry, no real evidence is available in the field and in the hospital.
In 1994, Soothil’s demonstration that phage therapy could improve skin grafts pseudomonas aeruginosa infections was supported by various studies. In June 2015, the European Medicines Agency organized a one-day workshop on the subject, and in July 2015, the National Institutes of Health in the United States hosted a two-day workshop regarding the matter.
Somewhere successful and somewhere unsuccessful experiments remain. Health-related inventions are not allowed to be used easily. However, in 2017 at the Howard Hughes Medical Science Education Alliance Phage Hunters Cataloged by Advanced Genomics and Evolutionary Science, a naturally occurring genetic engineer Soothill at the Great Ormond Street Hospital of Children for treating a woman with cystic fibrosis in a young woman infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Working Mechanism and Limitation
How Phage Therapy works?
Bacteria and viruses are sources of extraordinary diseases and infections that dominate the entire animal and plant world. Many inventions have been made to treat infected patients from these sources. Antibiotics cure bacterial infections as soon as possible, but the side effects are really risky and a complex concern.
The use of phage therapy is not a new method for bacterial infections but an alternative risk-free treatment of antibiotics. It is the natural enemy of bacteria and will not adversely affect human health, livestock and plants. However, despite its long history, its use is not clinically accessible globally.
Lytic bacteriophages mediate their antimicrobial impact by attaching to bacterial cell wall receptors, infusion of bacteriophage genome into the bacterium, recruitment of bacterial host cell machinery for bacteriophage protein production, and ensuing lysis of the bacterial cell with release of bacteriophage progeny. This bacterial virus doesn’t let the bacteria grow and multiply on the other hand the virus itself grows and multiplies inside the bacteria and when it breaks, it destructs the bacteria. Bacteriophages attack bacterial cells and in the case of lytic phages disrupt bacterial metabolism and destroy bacteria. It is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Through injection; the virus destroys the bacterial gene DNA or RNA. What is strange is that the phage virus produces excessive reproduction within the bacteria, and eventually the virus breaks down and releases new bacteriophages. Bacteriophages simply multiply and grow within the bacterium and eventually stop growing when the bacterium is destroyed.
How is Phage Therapy Administered?
There are many instances where the actual incidents of those who lost their lives due to improper use of proper medicine and suffered serious accidents. Of course, phage therapy has cured many diseases and relieved the risk, but it is also possible that many have suffered by not following the instructions of phage therapy. Since the beginning of the history of this method in 1915, many researches and studies have been done in this regard. It was not an easy journey to get legal recognition. The invention of medicine alone was not enough and it is important to know how to use and administer it effectively.
In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, phage therapy was given orally in tablet or fluid formulations to humans as an experiment in creating a long history. Phages have also been administered to infected patients rectally, locally (on particular affected area) in tampons, rinses, and creams, as pressurized canned products or intrapleural infusions, and intravenously.
Apparently, Phage Phi X174 has been administered to navigate humeral immune function in the United States for the adenosine deaminase-deficient patients. Accordingly phages are common in the nature such as typically consumed food, plants, animals and so forth.
Regarding the application methods, phages can be freeze-dried and made into pills or tablets for oral use. Vials ought to be refrigerated for liquid use but there is of course temperature consideration such as temperature up to 55oC for both liquid and pills. It is considered that oral administration is far better due to antacid contained in the phages. Topical administration requires application to gauzes on the affected area. This therapy kills the long standing bacteria and protects from further risks such as planned amputation of the organs and the potentiality of being handicapped as well.
How effective is Phage Therapy?
Today people have become so ambitious that everything has to be achieved as soon as imagined. In the virtual world, people are beginning to think that everything is possible with money. It is not wrong to want any kind of disease or illness to heal as soon as possible, but the time must come for everything, whether it is creative or destructive. In this sense, bacterial wounds or diseases are not diagnosed as soon as treatment begins. The effects of phage therapy may be slower than those of antibiotics, but this does not imply that it is less effective than antibiotics.
From all edges, phage therapy has no side effects. It is not easy to diagnose unless it is matched with specific strains. That being stated, it would be foolish to use the indistinguishable antibiotics as you get.
Obviously, there is an idiom that prevention is better than cure. But getting sick and getting sick is beyond our capacity. Invisible viruses and bacteria can infect us through various means. In some cases, treatment is delayed and the diagnosis may take a long time. Today, with the expanding use of antibiotics, various challenges are emerging in the medical field. We need alternatives. It is also a very special aspect to be treated with natural medicine method like phage therapy. There is no alternative to phage therapy if you think about the future challenges and the upbeat side, not in a hurry to diagnose the disease.
How safe is Phage Therapy?
No medicine is invented to be harmful, but the chemicals and other substances used in it can be life-threatening in some cases. But with regards to phage therapy it is safe and reliable, with no connection between treatment and patient deaths or adverse side effects. Since phages consist mostly of nucleic acids and proteins, they are inherently nontoxic. It is safe as it is treated naturally with the help of bacterial virus. If it does not coincide with the related strains, the patient may not recover but it has no side effects. Even so, natural remedies are to a great extent safe and reliable for our health. The use of antibiotics, even if one disease is diagnosed, can cause many other diseases, but phage therapy is very safe in this sense. According to some doctors, although there are common side effects after phage therapy, it has not been confirmed whether it is due to phage therapy or some other reason. If we get an incurable disease and get sick, we have no choice but to seek treatment. But you should not use antibiotics immediately during treatment. Phage therapy can be considered a safe and reliable method for bacterial patients.
Phage Therapy with a focus on the human Microbiota
Treatment of viruses and bacteria did not begin before the occurrence of infection
But nature has created everything to keep the universe in balance. Viruses and bacteria must have existed for centuries, probably since the origin of the earth. And bacteriophages, discovered in the nineteenth century, would probably have kept many bacterial diseases in balance by now if antibiotics had not been invented.
Phage therapy, which was evolving with limited resources, means and interests, had not only been overshadowed by the antibiotic frenzy, but has largely eroded confidence and trust in bacteriophages. Mankind, unaware of the chemical reaction of antibiotics and the potential dangers, began to use antibiotics indiscriminately, as if they had the gift of immortality, and as a result, now that many challenges have arisen, the real alternative is bacteriophage.
Phage therapy has the potential to cure drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria that cannot be cured by antibiotics. On the other hand some people are intolerant to antibiotics and use of antibiotic against them may be life threatening challenge. However, it is important to better research and study. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect bacteria. After the revelation of bacteriophages in the mid 1900s, they used to be an essential cure against pathogenic bacteria infection. It would be more efficient than antibiotics in the recent years but unfortunately it was almost totally eclipsed by antibiotics. Along the ascent of antibiotics obstruction, researchers have restarted the venture of bacteriophages evolution. One of the basic concerns with respect to bacteriophage treatment, in any case, is the chance of genome advancement, improvement of phage opposition, and resulting bothers to our microbiota.
Phage therapy is a technique that uses?
Scientists have discovered many alternatives and methods to prevent viral and bacterial diseases in the world by conducting rigorous studies, research and inventions day and night. Phage therapy, one of the most reliable, trustworthy and safe of the curing methods, has given many people the satisfaction of being able to breathe a sigh of relief. In fact, this therapy is used to treat bacterial infections using bacterial viruses. This method, which came into existence before the development of antibiotics, uses natural bacteriophages. The antibiotics really came out like a flood of rainy season.
Scientists have been forced to re-think phage therapy after a number of health problems, including drug-resistant superbugs, began to appear as many were unaware of the potential risks due to uncontrolled use of antibiotics. As this phage therapy is a method in itself, you do not have to go far to find the bacteria and viruses used in it. Also available as oral pills, tablets and liquids, as well as various creams, lotions and powders for external use. The use of natural bacterial viruses that do not harm any part of human or animal or plant is a unique art and exploration. In this technique, bacterial virus is applied, injected or fed as per the situation and the virus starts multiplying and growing duplicates inside the bacterial cells. When the number of virus increases rapidly and burst, as a result the bacteria gets destroyed and we get rid of bacterial infection.
Phage therapy is challenging to develop because?
There is nothing in the world without a challenge, and if it does, it doesn’t have more significance either. Even so, possessing one overcoming the challenges is still beyond the reach of the average person. Inventing and exploring is not an easy errand, moreover there are many challenges to sustain it in the long run. Phage therapy is no exception. Although this method initially had a promising effect on the treatment of bacterial diseases, it was overshadowed by the invention of antibiotics and its rapid sale and distribution. Subsequent to seeing the away from of the symptoms of anti-microbial, that is, its negative impacts, the enthusiasm for stage treatment has at long last begun to appear.
As I mentioned above, the first challenge was to invent this technique. After that competition with antibiotics is initial challenge because antibiotics show the result faster than phage therapy. Most of the people madly rush after immediate result. They don’t even concern about further effects. In this context, it was so complicated to continue the study and research regarding this matter. Recently many people have understood the significance of phage therapy and further results of antibiotics.
During the venture of this innovation, there are many other legal provisions in it because it is not easy to use in one’s health. However, it is important to experiment one’s health to see how effective the medication and method is. Even if the patient dies due to other reasons during the test, health professionals must be responsible. Winning the trust of the government, patients and other people is also a big challenge.
There are uncountable challenges during the treatment and experiment. Possibility for the transduction of genetic material to the microbiome is one of the significant concerns of phage therapy in the context of active infection in bacteria-bacteriophage communication and human immune systems comprise complications. Interpretation of pharmacokinetic data might be affected by immune clearance of the bacteriophages. Some other challenges are assembling and advancement, propagation of bacteriophages on a pathogenic bacteria host. Just specific bacterial strains can be compelling in this method. Therefore advancement of bacteriophages presents numerous challenges. On the other hand the use of animal studies for the confirmation of idea of phage therapy is indistinct right now.
There are so many unseen and unimaginable challenges that come in daily life. Despite this, day and night, the scientists who are engaged in this important exploration have been emerging beautiful future of medical science.
Can Phage Therapy be Harmful?
Of course, there is no justification for any medicine without effect, whether it is positive or negative. As far as phage therapy is concerned, it is not harmful as it is a completely natural method and the nucleic acids and proteins contained in it are non-toxic. However, no one is immortal in the world. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon for a patient to die while undergoing proper treatment. But people are blaming the treatment system and medicine for just looking at superficial things. In some places, even the right medicine is misused due to lack of knowledge. The effects may be different, but phage therapy does not have such serious side effects.
Although no concrete evidence has been presented, there are side effects occurred. However, the health of the patient and many other factors may be responsible for the appearance of side effects. Phage therapy interacts with human immune systems and it has least potentiality of harmful immune responses. Some side effects such as intestinal disorders, allergies, and secondary infections have been reported.
In any case, it is almost impossible to cure a patient without medication. More study and research is needed on this. Don’t be careless just because it’s safe. If it has side effects, there can be a solution to the risk. But in essence, phage therapy is safe and there is no alternative for now.
Phage Therapy Advantage and Disadvantage: Top legit points
Obviously, there are advantages and disadvantages to everything in the world. Only the benefits of precious gems are considered, but if you look at their disadvantages, then how many lives have been lost and how many are at risk due to precious materials. Phase therapy also has many advantages and disadvantages in the context we discuss here. But we will mention only a few here.
Advantages of Phage Therapy
- Phages cannot grow without host bacteria. Therefore they die after destructing pathogen.
- Since phages are viruses they are readily cleared out of our bodies by our immune system.
- This technique is easy enough to administer such as orally, intravenously and topically
- Phage therapy is more host-specific than antibiotics and also reduces the potential for secondary infections.
- It doesn’t require repeated doses because once applied phages will grow it in vivo.
- Antibiotics cannot penetrate biofilm but bacteriophages synthesize enzymes that breakdowns the biofilm and destroy easily.
- Manufacturing the bacteriophages is far cheaper than antibiotics.
- Since phages consist of nucleic acids and proteins, they are nontoxic.
- Phages can be readily employed to treat antibiotic-resistant infections.
- Phages are easily discovered, often from sewage and other waste materials that contain high bacterial concentrations.
- Phages can be versatile in terms of formulation development.
- They may be used alone or with antibiotics and other drugs.
Disadvantages of Phage Therapy
- It can be easily administered orally and there is a higher chance to inhale contaminations.
- It may require neutralizing the stomach acid before ingesting.
- It may lead some side effects since it interacts with immune systems.
- The specific bacteria must be diagnosed in order to use the right kind of phage.
- The use of temperate phages as therapeutics is problematic due to a combination of display of super infection immunity.
- Exact dose and duration of phase therapy is still unclear.
- It is complicated to find the exact phage needed to treat an infection.
- Phages may trigger and imbalance to immune system.
Phage Therapy and Its Application:
Each exploration has its own purpose and characteristics. Phage therapy technique was not invented many centuries ago, but its use has been a great success in the medical field. Although it has not been used globally, it is now a viable alternative to antibiotics. While talking about its application; first of all one has to think about its availability. In fact, phage is a ubiquitous bacterial virus. Once specific bacterial pathogens have been identified, bacteriophages must be collected because not all phages can kill all pathogens. It is found in soil, sewage, drains and rivers and in every area where bacteria is found.
Bacteria can infect everything, including humans, animals, insects, plants, and even aquatic animals. Bacteria benefit and harm us. Even things that are useful to us and are harmed by bacteria can be a prime concern for us. Therefore, the use of phage therapy can be very widespread.
Let’s discuss about the applications of phage therapy.
The major application of phage therapy is human health. Bacteria exist everywhere and we cannot see with naked eyes. When we inhale them along food, they began to infect us and we may fall sick. All the bacteria are not harmful but it’s not easy to distinguish the beneficial and harmful bacteria. On the other hand, bacteria can infect us on our wounds or external parts either. There are numerous treatment techniques of bacteria as well as virus. Among them phage therapy is one of the most efficient techniques as it requires natural bacteriophages. Phage therapy is applied to cure diabetic foot, external wounds, burns, ulcers, osteomyelitis, and drug-resistant infections. Bacteria cause rotten food and when we consume such infected food, we may get diarrhea as well as many other sicknesses.
In the context of phage therapy, bacterial virus is injected or applied as per the situation to the patients. When the virus enters inside the body then it detects the host bacteria pathogen. After then it penetrates even inside the biofilm then starts its job. Acinetobacter, Burkholderia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella, Salmonella, Serratia, Staphylococcus and Stenotrophomonas, Staphylococcal lung infections, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, eye infections, neonatal sepsis, urinary tract infections, dysentery, chicken cholera, bovine hemorrhagic fever, bubonic plague, cholera, surgical wound infections and dental service are some applications of phage therapy in human health.
Regardless how educated, civilized and intelligent a person may be, he cannot build a society without animals. Animals have not only provided us with food but also helped keep the environment in balance. On a daily basis, we are receiving help from animals. On the other hand, some animals live with us, so most of the bacteria can infect both humans and animals.
We also invest heavily in animal husbandry professionally. Bacteria can be transmitted to us from the meat, milk, eggs and other foods of the same animals, and the same animals can be infected and cause us great loss financially. Therefore, phage therapy for the animal kingdom is more rewarding. D’Herelle tested with the successful treatment of fowl typhoid in chickens as the first phage therapy in animals.
Some common zoonotic bacterial pathogens associated with poultry and swine Salmonella spp., E. coli, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp. and Listeria spp. are supposed to be resistant to many antibiotics. Researchers have achieved grand success with the phage therapy on animal husbandry. Ongoing researches have been going on and this technique has decreased the risks of antibiotics.
Bacteriophages significantly reduce the environmental impact of antibiotic use in agriculture, while potentially increasing profitability by lowering crop loss. Bacteria can destroy our crops, such as grains, vegetables, fruits, flowers, and the environment as a whole. We depend on nature to survive. In this way, after the bacterial infections spread in agriculture, our livelihood is being destroyed. On the other hand, excessive use of antibiotics has started to appear many negative effects on the environment.
The problem of fruit rot is exacerbated by the fact that the bacteria infect the plants and the yield decreases and the plants die. Antibiotics are being used to control this problem but the antibiotics are ultimately harmful. This is because of the human health and environmental impact of antibiotics. Such antibiotics have a direct and indirect effect on human health. In addition, climate change and the evolution of resistant insects are a major challenge for us.
Application of phages in agriculture is safe because phages don’t attack animal or plant cell. They just attack their host bacteria pathogens. Bacteria can infect the roots, stems, leaves, flowers and fruits of a plant. Therefore, the use of bacteriophages can make the plant healthy as well as increase yield and quality fruits. Since antibiotics not only reduce soil fertility and fruit quality but also develop resistant insects and pollute the environment, there is no substitute for controlling antibiotics and using bacteriophages.
It is true that no matter how much food we produce, we have to buy something to eat. Not all goods produced by such food industries are immediately distributed or consumed. We may need to store it for a few days, weeks, months or even years. Again, since the weather and temperature are not the same everywhere, it is a challenge to store such foods. The main reason for this is that the food rots or spoils. Bacteria are the main cause of spoiling food and it may cause death. Therefore, since antibiotics used to preserve such foods are harmful to health, bacteriophages are used to destroy harmful bacteria pathogens.
Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Giardia lamblia, Bacillus cereus are the some examples of bacteria that cause food poisoning. Food poisoning may cause serious sickness and even death.
In the recent years, some biotechnology companies have made phage products in the public food supply. Some foods may contain life threatening bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes bacteria. Many European countries and even in the US have approved the bacteriophages to spray over public food supply.
What are the limitations of Phage Therapy?
Regardless of how good and powerful the matter is, everything has own boundaries and limitations. After crossing a certain limit, not only will its dignity be diminished, but it may be considered an illegal or criminal offense. As phage therapy is the result of persistent research and study, the extent of its scope depends on its presentation. The more effective results are given in compliance with the legal provisions, the wider its limitations will be.
Some limitations of phage therapy can be reviewed as:
Any human activities beyond the legal provisions can be considered as a crime. Therefore, no matter how beneficial it may be, it cannot be legally established and operated until it is legally recognized in accordance with the prevailing laws of the country concerned. Not only that, in order to conduct a test on bacteriophages, the permission of the concerned administration is required if the drug is to be used in human health. Although some may use it without permission, it is illegal. Therefore it is better to operate only by fulfilling the legal provisions to guarantee government security and avoid possible troubles in the future.
Limitation in Human Medicine:
There are innumerable diseases and their factors for human health. The treatment and medicine for the same disease are also insignificant. One of the methods among them is phage therapy. Since this method treats patients infected with bacterial pathogens, it is not possible to diagnose all types of diseases. Therefore, the use and study of phage therapy in human health is limited. Bacteria can infect many of our internal and external organs. Infections can spread faster to wounds.
External wounds, burns, tropic ulcers, skin grafting, diabetic foot ulcers, biodegradable wound dressing, cholera, diarrhea, staphylococcal lung infections, P. aeruginosa infections, eye infections, neonatal sepsis, urinary tract infections and surgical wound infections are some applications of phage therapy. Since this therapy can only be used where there is a bacterial infection, it is not difficult to determine the limitation in human health.
Limitation in Agriculture and Animals:
Agriculture is the basis of survival regardless how civilized and intellectual we are with the help of science and technology. Because food is necessary for survival and agriculture is indispensable for food. But due to many difficult challenges, the agriculture sector is facing many problems. Therefore, phages are very important to protect the agricultural sector and the overall environment from bacterial diseases, but since it can only destroy bacterial pathogens, its extent is not uncertain.
Very effective and safe treatments against some animals’ diseases such as acute diarrhea due to E. coli pathogens, Acinetobacter baumanii, P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus infections, Campylobacter jejuni, andSalmonella spp., respiratory infections, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Burkholderia have been successfully done. These are all caused by different bacteria. With the invention of phage therapy in the 19th century, new hope had emerged in the bacterial world, but with the rapid development of antibiotics, phage therapy had been overshadowed for some time. In the recent years, researchers from several countries reawakened on this regards. There is great potential for phage therapy in this area, even if it involves only bacteria.
Limitation in Food Supply:
Nature itself is the best for balancing nature. We use many things to keep the food tasty and fresh but it is the bacteria that spoil it. However, the bacteria also make the food edible. Some companies have been allowed to use phages in order to prevent harmful bacteria from coming into contact with the food and destroying or spoiling the food.
For instance, bacteriophage mixture is sprayed against Listeria monocytogenes bacteria that can cause serious illness and even death for people with weak immune systems. Almost all strains of Staphylococcal infections are now resistant to penicillin and to newer antibiotics as well. The US Government as well as European countries have granted permission to use such bacteriophages to public food. Similarly, Intralytix, Inc. and OmniLytics are developing other phage products to be used in food, water and agriculture. Some other companies have also been developing phages to protect public food from bacterial contamination.
Although phage therapy is safe and beneficial, it is unfortunate that it has not been able to be used globally and rapid development at the international level. In particular, Russia, Georgia, Poland, some European countries and the United States have legal recognition, while some countries have not. Therefore, its international limitations should be extended. Because avoiding antibiotics from few countries is not sufficient to keep the nature and the environment clean. Phage therapy needs to be universalized if medical culprits are to be eliminated from the world.
Is Phage Therapy Resistances towards bacteria and Antibiotics?
Bacterial infections have killed countless people before the invention of regarding treatments and medicines. When the importance and usefulness of bacteriophages was discovered in the 19th century, the development and use of antibiotics overshadowed this pure method while effective studies and research were being conducted on it. Generally, antibiotics are fast-acting drugs, but the chemicals in them can cause many problems ultimately, even if one is diagnosed.
Bacteria, on the other hand, have become more resistant to antibiotics and have developed protective properties, such as biofilm, to protect them. Another time, antibiotics with the same effect is not as effective as before, and the biofilm cannot be surpassed. In this way, while developing one strong and powerful antibiotic after another, harmful elements are being produced in our life, animals and plants and the entire nature. Regards of bacteriophages, it is a natural bacterial virus that is absolutely safe and has many more powerful properties than antibiotics.
There is no need to add one dose after another, such as antibiotics. Once used, the host bacterium penetrates the pathogen, increasing its number and stopping the growth of the pathogen. It can even penetrate the biofilm.
The dose of antibiotics should be increased until the bacteria are destroyed, and the bacteria will continue to increase their resistance. This case also implies with phage therapy, but bacteriophages destroy the pathogenic growth and development of bacteria, and they don’t die without destroying the pathogens completely. Bacteriophages have extremely more resistance power than antibiotics and bacteria as well.
Phage Therapy and Its Range
When was first Phage Therapy used?
As complex as it is to explore and invent in the field of science and technology, the first challenge is the first experiment and the results it gives. If the experiment is successful, an era begins, but if it is not successful, no one cares about the pain and suffering of research and does not believe in their hard work. The invention of bacteriophages was made by the Englishman Frederick Twort in 1915. But the experimented for the first time was made by d’Herelle and several hospital interns in 1919 to a 12-year-old boy with severe dysentery. The experiment was successful.
The discovery and research of bacteriophages, that started with extraordinary thought and curiosity, which is being tested four years after its discovery, is spreading widely today. Although the first therapeutic test was successful in 1919, it was only made public in 1931.
Why is Phage Therapy Important?
With deep thought about life and the world, we must worship the rewards that come from dedicating one’s personal life for the betterment of others. When it comes to the importance of phage therapy, what should not be forgotten is that why do we use medicine and diagnose the disease. Certainly to save lives. Then we have to remember that we don’t have to survive only for present but also tomorrow. Today, one can overcome the disease by taking any medicine, but if one thinks a little about the dire situation of tomorrow, there is no other option of phage therapy. This is because phage therapy does contain chemicals such as antibiotics. It inactivates the growth rate of the pathogen inside the host bacterial pathogen without harming the human body, animal and plant cells and instead destroys the pathogen by increasing its population and killing itself.
It is natural that once you use this natural remedy, you do not have to worry about the dose and it does not die without completely destroying the bacteria. This bacteriophage is easily available everywhere and also costs very low to produce, which is reasonable from an economic point of view. On the other hand, antibiotics that use strong chemicals also cannot penetrate insoluble biofilm but bacteriophages penetrate discharging enzymes. It denotes that phage therapy is far stronger and more efficient than antibiotics.
What else can Phage Therapy treat?
While phage therapy is not a miracle rather than a treatment technique, this world is shrouded in mystery. Bacteria that are invisible to the naked eye take countless lives, but the same bacterium is destroyed by another bacterium and saves us. It can be said that bacteriophage is a loyal bacterium that destroys itself by protecting us.
Phage therapy can treat human diseases caused by bacterial pathogens like External wounds, burns, tropic ulcers, skin grafting, diabetic foot ulcers, biodegradable wound dressing, cholera, diarrhea, staphylococcal lung infections, P. aeruginosa infections, eye infections, neonatal sepsis, urinary tract infections and surgical wound infections. Similarly this method can treat animal diseases caused by bacteria like E. coli pathogens, Acinetobacter baumanii, P. aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus infections, Campylobacter jejuni, andSalmonella spp., respiratory infections, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Burkholderia. These are only the few examples of treatment done by phage therapy. There is a wide scope of phage therapy along further researches and studies.
Does Phage Therapy Work on viruses?
The bacteriophage used in phage therapy is actually a type of bacterial virus. No matter how resistant do harmful bacteria pathogens develop, these bacterial viruses destroy them. Hearing this fact raises the question of whether it works against viruses, but it does not work against other viruses. Since the target is the bacterium that spreads the infection, it kills the bacterium and kills itself.
Difference between Bacteriophage and Antibiotics?
Both antibiotics and phages are medicines to prevent or cure bacterial infections and diseases. Despite constant efforts to make both drugs as safe, reliable, and effective as possible, they have not been as popular as they should have to be. Depending on the region and the situation, the value and importance of both these medicines are in their own place. In some cases, there are many differences between the two drugs, which seem to complement one another. It is important to understand before praising one and criticizing the other. Let’s look at some of the differences.
- Phages won’t harm any human, animal and plant cells except for the bacterial cells.
- Phage therapy consist natural bacterial virus and it has fewer side effects than antibiotics.
- Phage therapy is more effective than antibiotics.
- It is cheaper in manufacturing than antibiotics and safer to use.
- Phage therapy can penetrate biofilm that is almost impossible to antibiotics.
- Page therapy doesn’t require particular dose for any treatment. Once taken phage will work for long time because it grows and multiplies its population until the pathogen destroys.
- It has been approved in only few countries. Therefore, its market is limited.
- It can give faster result than phage therapy but harms certain cells.
- It contains chemicals and triggers the bacteria to become more resistance.
- It has the capacity to recover soon and harm as well.
- It is manufactured in large scales and requires more investment as well because of various ingredients. It’s more harmful than phages due to its chemical.
- Sometime bacteria develop biofilm as its defensive features and many antibiotics cannot penetrate.
- It requires particular doses and prescriptions.
- Although the popularity of antibiotics is decreasing day to day, it can be found all over the world.
Can Phage Therapy Kill Viruses?
For many people, the most common misconception about infection is whether the infection is bacterial or viral. Of course, it is difficult to tell by looking at the symptoms of some infections. If the source of the infection is not identified, treatment will not be effective. Some people mistakenly define bacteria and viruses in the same sense. The phage used in phage therapy is actually a bacterial virus, but even if it is a virus, it does not kill the virus as it only harms specific bacteria. But because the properties and characteristics of some bacteria and viruses are very similar, scientists are constantly researching whether they can destroy the virus. Therefore, it is a natural virus that has been invented to destroy bacteria, rather than determining whether or not it will kill the virus in a concrete way and it can be invented to kill the virus after proper use and research but not in this context.
If the possibility is found to be strong, it is not impossible to use it against the virus in a different way by modifying in some extent.
Will Phage Therapy replace Antibiotics?
Once the things in the world are developed, it is difficult to get rid of them completely whether they are good or bad. It is human nature that the same good thing is considered worse by someone. As far as phage therapy and antibiotics are concerned, the legal recognition of antibiotics may be revoked in the future but not eradicated. Even if it is illegal, its production and use cannot be stopped. Other alternatives may be invented and phage therapy may be evolving, but this does not mean that it will completely eliminate antibiotics. Many people are aware of the dangers and effects of antibiotics but do not stop using them because it may affect the future but benefits the present. Another thing is that even in the span of a century, phage therapy has not been able to capture the global market. It is not uncommon for the attraction to antibiotics to gradually diminish after everyone becomes aware of the usefulness of phage therapy, but it is not possible to completely replace it. Another thing is that antibiotics have also formed a strong base in the economic sector. There may be some modifications, the name may change, but it may take centuries to be displaced by enforcing strict laws. The reason I am saying this is that there are plenty of people in the world who like to walk along the wrong path despite the good way.
Why is Phage Therapy Better than Antibiotics?
Being good and being successful have very different meanings. From the point of view of progress, antibiotics seem to have made rapid progress but in the long run it proved to be harmful. In comparison, Phage Therapy is very good and specific because it does not use chemicals in Phage Therapy and its side effects are negligible.
It is much better than antibiotics due to its specific properties such as destroying bacterial pathogens without affecting any cell of the body, destroying itself after the pathogen is destroyed, not having to complete repeated doses, cheap and safe treatment. On the other hand, just as antibiotics develop resistance to bacteria against phage therapy, phage is more potent than pathogens because it is natural. Some bacteria are so resistant that even the toughest antibiotics can’t destroy them, such as building a biofilm for defense and preventing antibiotics from entering. In this case, the phage emits another chemical enzyme and easily penetrates and destroys it. This is largely because the phages used once will not die without completely eliminating the bacteria.
Phage Therapy in the post antibiotic era
As a business established through ongoing study and research, hard sacrifice and dedication, and unlimited dreams and investment, as it moves forward with the support of all, it becomes a document to be remembered by that era. In fact, the medical field is the center of the hope of giving new life to as many as possible. Until the solution to the problem is found, it is limited to that problem, but when the solution becomes the problem, it becomes the misfortune of the age. The concept of phage therapy came into being long before antibiotics were invented. Concern departments ignored this method of carrying a strong base of bacterial eradication and at the same time the development and distribution of antibiotics overshadowed this method. Effective application of antibiotics during World War II has skyrocketed.
Antibiotics, which have been dominant for nearly a century in the field of bacterial control, created life-threatening effects. Since its effects began to be seen in all sides, there has been awareness that antibiotics should be controlled. Looking back for alternatives, the focus has shifted to phage therapy after finding phages that benefit the whole of life and the universe have been ignored. In this short period of time, antibiotics have spread invisible toxins. It has not only affected human, animal and plant cells but also made the earth almost desolate.
Highly resistant bacteria pathogens and other bacteria are grown. Even simple infections cannot be cured without powerful drugs. Some human health has become a testing ground for antibiotics only. Many other deadly diseases have arisen in the process of diagnosing an infection. Phage therapy can be taken as a strong basis in the search for alternatives. Of course, phage therapy is not newer than the age of antibiotics. If everyone had paid attention since then, the level of this system and the state of the world would be very different by now. So far, the appeal of antibiotics has not diminished. People need today’s happiness more than tomorrow’s worries.
Now there is no alternative to globalizing phage therapy by discouraging lethal antibiotics. Companies that produce the same antibiotics can also promote this method. If the problem is global, it is important for everyone to pay attention to it, because banning antibiotics by a few countries will not solve the problem in the world. Phage therapy will now spread rapidly. This should not be discouraged by the appearance of common side effects, as antibiotics remain popular despite their dreadful side effects.
Various clinical trials and other experiments have highlighted the glory of phage therapy. Phage therapy for bacterial infections will create another beautiful era. Although it will take some time to face the challenges created by antibiotics, the era of phage therapy will surely make a new history if the effects of antibiotics can be eliminated not only from clinics, medical, hospital and biotech companies but also from each of our cells.
Cost and Measures of Phage Therapy
How much does Phage Therapy cost?
Phage Therapy is the therapeutic application of bacteriophage arrangements. Well trained doctors are required to conduct the treatment. The cost of each treatment depends on the infection and the condition of the patient. It also makes a difference in how much to do the lab test and how long to stay under the supervision of a doctor. Statistics from Georgia’s Phase Therapy Center range from $ 3,000 to $ 5,000. Since there are different prices and expenses in different places, there is no uniformity.
The initial sample tested at the Eliava laboratory in Georgia is €85. If one has to be hospitalized then €3900 costs for 7-14 days and €3900 + €300 per day over 2 weeks but these charges imply for difficult cases only. There is also available distant treatment service. €1900 includes online consultation with specialist. Similarly, in an American-owned subsidiary phage therapy center Tbilisi for phage treatments on diabetic foot, burns, ulcers, osteomyelitis, and drug-resistant infections treatment costs between US$8000 and $20 000.
Countries that support Phage Therapy?
Before a century, the people were denied access to some of the best antibiotics developed in the Western countries. Along that the Soviet Union invested money and concentration in the field of bacteriophages to treat infections. They continued this technique but the development and distribution of antibiotics overshadowed it and this method couldn’t be expanded in wide extent. Since then some Western countries such as Russia, Poland and Georgia kept continued till now. Many other countries including the United States of America have been paying attention towards this beneficial technique when the culprit of antibiotics spread worldwide. Let’s take some overviews about those countries.
Politics has a crucial role to play in advancing and backwarding human civilization. Political ups and downs and divisions in different periods of history not only draw the boundaries between countries, but also fragment civilization. While it divides art, culture, exploration and invention. The same thing happened in the early days of phage therapy.
In the course of antibiotic development, when the Western countries were divided in 1940s, Russian scientists valued the already existing phage therapy and continued to research, use and promote it. There was a Cold War between antibiotic and bacteriophage production and the results and reports of phage therapy could not be released globally. This is one of the reasons why phage therapy is not widely publicized.
The effects of penicillin G antibiotics during World War II drew the attention of most countries. However, Russia, which has so far been involved in the development and promotion of continuous phage therapy, has been successful in treating many bacterial infections. Russia is one of the first countries to defend the existence of phage therapy in the face of widespread criticism and opposition to antibiotics.
War is unpleasant and destructive in itself. When World War II and the communist era divided the Western countries, many things were destroyed, but the evolution of Phage therapy in Poland did not stop. This is one of the reasons why Poland is at the forefront of phage therapy development today.
The Phage Therapy Unit of the Herzfeld Institute launched the first ethical phage therapy service in Poland in 2005 just one year after its admission in the European Union. Significance of Poland in the world war was somewhat constrained after World War I. It was a young independent state attempting to re-establish 1921 onwards when an article on phage therapy was published in French for the first time. Polish microbiologists could not contend with a well- succeeding Eliava Institute. The first Polish work on phage treatment in controlling dysentery was published in 1923. It was only a couple of years after d’Hérelle’s pioneer endeavor to treat dysentery with phage in 1919.
Today, Poland is the only European Union center for phage therapy that has conserved phage therapy without being distracted on such challenging days.
Bacteriophage was first discovered by the Englishman Frederick Twort before a century in 1915 and later the French-Canadian Felix d’ Herelle in 1917. He tested in 1919 as the first successful therapeutic experiment. On the other hand a Georgian bacteriologist, George Eliava was making the same invention. He then visited to d’Hérelle in the Pasteur Institute in Paris and founded the Eliava Institute in Tbilisi, Georgia in 1923.
Institutionally, evolution of the phage therapy started from Georgia could not be extended in wide extent for a century, which was the misfortune of human civilization. The indomitable courage, perseverance, hard work, dedication and solidarity towards Phase Therapy made history, but the slow pace of progress cast a cloud of disbelief over the possibility and impact of Phase Therapy.
Legal and Safety Concern of Phage Therapy
Where is Phage Therapy legal?
Phage therapy has gained legal recognition since its inception in western countries such as Georgia, Russia and Poland, which have been promoting it despite challenges in the history. Later, in the field of food processing and supply, it has become legal in the United States and other European countries either. Phage therapy has been reborn as bacterial pathogens infections occur in every region and in every country, as well as antibiotics that diagnose bacteria are not safe.
There might be numerous reasons why phage therapy was eclipsed in the competition with antibiotics. However, due to the insane effect of antibiotics, it became unfortunate that phage therapy was not legally recognized. Some patients are scared when they hear about the virus used in this method and it has not been effective. In the context of the ban on antibiotics in many countries, expansion of phage therapy needs to be accelerated.
The use of all-round phage therapy to treat bacterial pathogens that are rapidly appearing not only in humans but also in other animals is on the rise. Previously, a multi-center study on Shigellosis bacteria conducted in six Asian countries like Pakistan, China, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia has shown great progress. Even though many other countries have been practicing on this regards, Georgia, Russia and Poland are the only countries that have started using it with full legal recognition.
Where is Phage Therapy available?
Many concern departments have been searching the alternatives after the awakening of consciousness against antibiotics in many countries. Recently, they have drawn concentration towards phage therapy. Although such countries have been testing this technique, only Georgia, Russia, and Poland are among the countries that provide legal recognition.
Phage therapy is available in Eliava Phage Therapy Center in Tbilisi Georgia, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wroclaw, Poland. Russia manufactures and provides the services in regards but there is no single center dedicated to phage therapy. Above mentioned phage therapy centers are dedicated to phage therapy but there are several health institutions those provide this service.
Where is Phage Therapy used?
Phage therapy is therapeutically used regarding the bacterial infections. This therapy is more effective and safer than antibiotics. Legally it is used in the phage therapy centers that are located in Georgia, Russia and Poland. Actually there is no single therapeutic center only dedicated to phage therapy in Russia but the service is available.
Indeed, antibiotic has created monstrous trouble in the world. Therefore, phage therapy is used instead of antibiotics but this therapy requires specific bacteria pathogen. Phage; bacteriophage is principally used in human health, animal husbandry, agriculture, aquaculture and so forth. It has very wide application fields though very limited area till now due to legal provision. It is also used in public food supply because harmful bacteria are the responsible to spoil food and food poisoning as well. Bacteriophage protects food from such hazards.
Is phage therapy legal in Australia?
Australian centers for phage therapy of intranasal instillation and intravenous injection have demonstrated safety and tolerability. However, the treatment for general public is not promptly accessible right now. It is prescribed only by trained doctors under certain conditions and protocols. The classification of phage therapy is not entirely clear, and this has implied that the place of therapeutic phages is not yet completely settled within the Australian administrative system.
Although practice, research, clinical trials and the necessary strategies have been developed in Australia, there is no doubt that therapeutic use has not yet begun in the general public.
Is phage therapy available in Canada?
Although the Canadian public consumes phages through food, this method is not yet available in Canada. Not without confidence in phage therapy in Canada, scientists there want to study and invent as much as possible. However, some claim that even though there is no official phase therapy available in Canada, it has been used in one way or another for centuries. D’Herelle, a scientist who reported the discovery of phage therapy in 1917s and tested the phage therapy for the first time in the therapeutic field in 1919, was also a Canadian citizen. It can be considered that the Canadians had potential concept of phage therapy for before a century even though they didn’t adopt this technique.
Is Phage Therapy FDA approved?
FDA stands for the Food and Drug Administration which is a government agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The main objective of the agency is to be responsible for securing the general health by guaranteeing the security and adequacy of human beings and veterinary medications, biological products, and clinical gadgets. Generally it regulates all the products regarding the health that emanate radiation.
The development of phage therapy would have brought a different income and its level would have been very specific now if the Cold War in scientific research and political instability would have prevented World War II. But because of all these obstacles, its territory remained narrow for almost a century. The negative effects of antibiotics have led to the emergence of alternative therapies, which have been approved by the FDA in 2019, exactly a century later.
Bacteriophage is now legally used in the United States after FDA approval. In particular, it is used for food supply and fermentation rather than for therapeutic purposes.
Is Phage Therapy legal in the US?
Unlike Georgia and Poland, a separate dedicated phage therapy center has not been set up in the United States, but has been used in various fields since the FDA approved it in 2019. Phage mixtures are used in clinical trials, especially to prevent bacterial infections in food production and supply.
As it is in its initial trial period, it has not been used as extensively as other medicines because using any medicine in human health without special research and approval of concern departments is not considered legal. It can be said that the legal way has been opened for phage therapy in the United States and the study and research of possible things is going on.
It doesn’t mean that it could be used extensively purchasing from the market as soon as it gets legal recognition. If the global market, such as antibiotics, is covered rapidly and a serious problem arises later, health is not only at stake, it may take a century to recover and another century to control its effects. Therefore, it is now used in limited quantities in the United States for in-depth study of the potential advantages and disadvantages.
Where can you get Phage Therapy?
Although phage therapy is recognized by many concern agencies as the best treatment against bacterial infections, it is not as readily available as other antibiotics such as clinics, medical, hospitals, pharmacies and other health agencies due to detailed studies and research. It is ironic that many consumers are not able to take advantage of this easily, but the lack of ample study is a better way to slow down than to face a serious challenge like antibiotics tomorrow. With the permission of clinical trials and special agencies, this service can now be found in many countries of the world, but only Georgia, Russia and Poland can be considered for specific treatment for decades. Even though Russia has its research center and manufacture companies, no single dedicated phage therapy center has been established, but treatment services can be availed. Phage therapy is available in Eliava Phage Therapy Center in Tbilisi Georgia, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy in Wroclaw, Poland.For food supply, it has been extended to other countries including the United States.
Why is Phage Therapy banned in the US?
Getting legal recognition does not mean that everything expands effectively. Despite countless tests and in-depth studies, the potential risks are unpredictable. There have been some achievements in the United States since the FDA approved it, including the clinical trial of phase therapy, but it is not allowed to be used in human health as it is in its infancy. Food production and supply have come a long way. Phase therapy is not banned in the United States. However, due to the trial period, many experiments have been limited.
Another challenge is to get rid of antibiotic products that immediately react against the problem and available in many verities. Most of the people are habitual with antibiotics and they are afraid of hearing virus as therapeutic application.
Phage Therapy Regulation
Despite the competition with antibiotics, the Cold War between scientific researches, the world war that brought political instability and the disregards of many people, phage therapy has regained its glory again. Pharmaceutical legislation is primarily executed to regulate pharmaceuticals, devoid of any patient customization and intended for huge scope dissemination. Accordingly, the subsequent administrative system is not compatible with the concept of phage therapy. Frequent appeals for a committed administrative system have been disregarded by the European legislature, which offers strong resistance to change notwithstanding the point of reference of the unhindered usage of advanced medical pharmaceutical product regulation in this regard. Admittedly, in many respects, phage therapy drug products are highly unconventional pharmaceuticals and possibly hindered the development of appropriate regulatory pathways as they conform to the sanctioned model. Although the administrative methodologies of nations where phage therapy practices have never been deserted, some western countries have now opened new avenues for phage therapy regulation. Similarly, supranational and international bodies are encouraged to assume control over activities initiated by national administrative authorities.
Any person, society or organization should remain under the rules and regulations. When the limits of regulation and dignity are exceeded, then its downfall begins. Every rule of law should be amended according to the changing times and circumstances. Failure to do so will result in no progress and it will be difficult to maintain discipline. But the phage therapy method has to follow the law since its inception. Despite many difficulties and uncomfortable situations, the rules and regulations have not been reviewed. However, various countries are now showing keen interest in regulating phage therapy, which has spread rapidly beyond the horizons of Georgia, Russia and Poland. Since the rules and regulations determine the dignity and scope of all, it is necessary for everyone to take initiative in this.
Phage Therapy Side effects
A small piece of stone can bring a wave to calm water, but one needs to accept the wave when it is needed. I mean, as long as our body stays healthy like calm water, there is no need for waves and tides. It is foolish to remain calm even after the transition. When we get infected, there is no alternative of treatment. But the treatment must be efficient and low at risk. Medicine does have some side effects. But if there are more negative effects than needed, that is the problem. Although phage therapy has very few side effects, it can affect the immune system. According to some reports, some multiple side effects including intestinal disorders, allergies, and secondary infections have occurred during the phage therapy though there is no concrete evidence regarding the matter. A few minor side effects may have been due to the liberation of endotoxins from bacteria lysed in vivo by the phages.
Side effect should be considered as the chance of discovering other secrets rather than making negative perception. But if the patient’s condition is at risk, it can become a big problem. An in-depth study of the causes and potential risks of side effects and the refinement of phage therapy could prove to be a strong alternative to antibiotics and a boon for the future.
Clinical Trials of Phage Therapy
Are there any phage therapy clinical trials?
It is not enough to get legal recognition just by inventing a technology and getting everyone’s support and positive perception. Moreover the challenges and protocols of the therapeutic field are very complex. It is a really challenging task to show all the positive results by conducting a clinical trial on a scientific basis. A century after its inception, Phage Therapy, which has been reborn with many obstacles and barriers, has been allowed for extensive clinical trials in recent years.
Intralytix, the largest food safety phage company in the world was established in 1998 in Columbia, Maryland, USA. The company received U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)/U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) approval for a bacteriophage-based food safety product in 2006. In the same year it conducted human clinical trial against infected venous ulcers as the first-ever in the US.
Accordingly, it was conceded the first FDA affirmed Investigational New Drug (IND) for a double-blind, randomized, placebo (fake treatment) controlled clinical trial in the U.S. for an orally administered phage planning in 2018. This company has one continuous clinical trial in New York. It will begin its Shigella preliminary in 2021 and the company hopes to begin two extra clinical trials and dispatch a dietary product in 2021.
Locus Biosciences; a drug manufacturing industry was founded in 2015 in North Carolina’s Research Triangle Park. This company along collaboration with Johnson and Johnson conducted a clinical trial for a CRISPR enhanced phage therapy in the early 2020.
What are the discoveries based on phage therapy?
Intralytix Company has assembled a Master Drug File (MDF) for the first time in the world that is used to treat infected venous ulcers through the first US clinical trial in 2006. This Company has also been managing Shigella Phage Therapy as a clinical trial which is going to take place in 2021. Shigella bacteria cause approximately 125Million people globally each year and associate around 14,000 deaths occurring in young children. The company was awarded a multi-million dollar grant from the National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) for this arrangement.
Some bacteria like Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas are the causes of food poisoning. Such bacteria can be neutralized by phage cocktails or phage mixtures to make food safer. It is also effective in destroying many harmful bacteria found in other animals. Phage injection sets up CRISPR resistance. CRISPR–Cas systems that are adjusted to target early infused phage sequences give better resistance to infections.
Not all experiments and applications over the course of a century are imaginary. Although there is not much discovery in therapeutic technology, it is now proven to be much better than antibiotics. Since it only affects specific bacteria, phages can be used after identify infectious bacteria, so it cannot be produced and sold in large quantities like readymade antibiotics but it is more effective than antibiotics for internal and external bacterial infections, dental infection, animals, plants as well as food production.
What is the current research being carried out for phage therapy?
This phage therapy method is rapidly extending today, surpassing the open horizons of Georgia, Russia and Poland, which have endure various obstacles since its inception. With the changing times and circumstances, research in phase therapy is becoming more widespread. Now considering the unique nature of stages, phage researchers believe that the current processes of regulatory approval of phage products should be modified. Some time ago, the first randomized, double-blind clinical trial of Phage Therapy was accomplished in accordance with a decent clinical and construction procedure. More clinical trials are currently underway with phase therapy in urinary tract infections with phage therapy, with some reassuring initial effects.
In addition, the FDA has endorsed the U.S. Phage Therapy Center application to conduct the clinical trial of intravenous administered phage therapy for the treatment of patients with infected ventricular support devices. The uses of phage therapy in animal breeding, birds, and aquaculture have been considered, with significant successes in experimental treatments for bovine mastitis, bovine diarrhea, and pig diarrhea, as well as in a variety of poultry treatments. The first commercial products for the use of phage therapy have been registered in Ukraine and the United States, and related applications are being reviewed by the European Commission.
At a time when no genuine drug has been invented against the current corona epidemic, researchers have turned their attention toward phage therapy. According to the University of Birmingham, the bacteriophage, which kills bacteria, can fight bacterial infections in patients whose immune systems are debilitated by the SARS-Cove 2 virus, which causes Covid-19 disease. Bacteriophages are used to target secondary bacterial infections in the patient’s respiratory tract as in the first approach. These secondary infections are a potential cause of high mortality. The aim is to use the bacteriophages to reduce the number of bacteria and limit their spread, giving the patient’s immune system more time to deliver antibodies against SARS-COV-2. Anyway further exploration is critically required.
On the other hand, phage therapy has a unique place in the field of gene modification tool CRISPR. CRISPR is actually a bacterial immune system. CRISPR takes a small amount of bacteriophage DNA and incorporates it into the bacterial cell DNA. Thus, scientists from their respective fields are doing significant research.
Phage Therapy Jobs and Employment Criteria
Why is phage therapy an emerging Industry?
If we do not believe the contemporary technology, the process of birth of all people is the same, but one’s hobbies and desires can bring new era. Bacteria had been a reality and unsolved problem for centuries, but the hobbies of Frederick Twort and Felix d’Herelle became the solution. The invention of phage therapy, which began with such passion, was a beautiful day for human civilization. But its initial venture was not pleasant. Today, as researchers look for alternatives to the challenge posed by antibiotics, researchers look back over a century and find that phage therapy, brought together by dedicated countries Georgia, Russia and Poland, has got justice. Now, phage therapy is emerging an industry due to several factors. Some of them are as:
It seems that there is nothing left in the world to invent and research, but even the boundless desires and aspirations of the people take out the monstrous realms. No one in the world is immortal and immortal, but it is a praiseworthy deed of man to advance human civilization by doing good deeds while living. One’s determination can lead to the establishment of a company, but that organization needs a lot to reach the peak of progress and achieve the goal.
In this way, many people get services and facilities from traveling together. Phase therapy is not a cure for a necromancer chanting spell. It requires a lot of diligent and dedicated researchers, collaborators and doctors. Not only that, but the company needs a lot of skilled manpower to set up the necessary mechanisms to move it forward.
Today, the expansion of the Phage Therapy Center has become the focal point of many people’s careers as students who spend a lot of money to establish themselves as health workers do not have employment opportunities. This can be taken as the welfare of the entire human race. Since unemployment is the cause of many culprits, the promotion of such employer companies helps a lot in building a civilized society.
There are many types of epidemics in the world at different times. Once an epidemic occurs, it causes unimaginable human damage. Sometimes even a simple infection can kill many people. Sometimes the cure for specific diseases is not found in time; sometime the lack of medicines and ignorance will lead to loss of life. Many lives can be saved by producing a medicine that is available as soon as it is needed. Phage Therapy Center is emerging as a specialized industry. No matter how harmful antibiotics are, we must continue to consume them until there is no alternative. Moreover, many medicines can be produced to expand this industry if concern agencies draw their attention. In other words, in today’s world, medicine is just as important as grain to survive.
Although antibiotics cannot be replaced, the appeal of phage therapy continues to grow in large quantities. There is growing interest and curiosity as whether not only bacterial but also viral infections can be treated. Phage therapy has brought great potential when medicine is needed against most diseases without the use of chemicals. According to the applications and clinical trials till now, phage therapy is totally safe because the virus used in the treatment is naturally not harmful to any human, animals and plant cells. Therefore regarding the medicine production, phage therapy is emerging as an industry with great potentiality.
Even before the discovery of the treatment method, the bacteria killed many people but it was not as resistant as it is now. When the Cold War broke out between scientists over the subject of research and competition between antibiotics and phage therapy skyrocketed, the competition began to produce harmful chemicals mixed antibiotics to become more effective and powerful and got victory for some extent. In time, the use of antibiotics began to cause many problems. Today the world is in a terrible situation. Even if the use of antibiotics is stopped, it will take decades or centuries to control its effects.
Looking to the future, phage therapy is a boon because use of medicine is our obligation. The use of natural phage is easy, effective and reasonable as there is no chemical risk and it will kill itself by destroying harmful bacteria and there will be no difficulty in its collection. Bacteria and viruses cannot be eradicated from the world forever. But the only reliable way to control it is through phage therapy. It will occupy a good market in the future. Just as there was an era of antibiotics a few years ago, there will soon be an era of bacteriophages. But in some countries, its use will be a revolution.
Phage Therapy Past and Future Prospects
Ethics is and must be associated behind every invention. Science itself is a monstrous ocean of complex knowledge. Inventions for the benefit of mankind, of every creature, of nature, and of the entire universe, are gaining prevalence.
Political turmoil has led to divisions in neighboring countries, and a rift in scientific research. It was certainly not easy for Bacteriophage to travel a limited area for a century, struggling between the Cold War with its contemporaries, the devastation of World War I, and the disregards of many people. Two years after Frederick Twort reported the invention of phage therapy, Felix d’Hérelle also set out on another exciting venture regarding this. But a year later, in 1918, World War I broke out. Thus, despite the pressures and obstacles in every field, the credit for the phage therapy against bacteria continues to go to Georgia, Russia and Poland. In the process of treating bacterial infections in a non-chemical manner, significant contributions have been made in the field of human health, including internal and external organs, animals and plants likewise food production, supply and fermentation as well.
As far as competing antibiotics are concerned, thousands of infections are diagnosed as soon as possible and millions of diseases are born. Ordinary bacteria also became resistant. Today, the world is in such a dire situation that even if the use of antibiotics is stopped immediately, it would take almost a century for the problem to be brought under control and it would probably be impossible to solve in some extent. Scientists who have revisited such a situation a century later are now looking at phage therapy as a single option with high importance. Many of the world’s most powerful and civilized countries are also providing legal recognition for its use and are inventing drugs against many diseases through clinical trials.
Research is underway to determine if viral diseases can be diagnosed in the future. In the golden age of phage therapy, it is important to be vigilant for harmful drugs such as antibiotics. It is hoped that this age will save the end of human civilization.